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Laura Militello, M.A. , is a co-founder and Senior Scientist at Applied Decision Science. Laura is a leading authority on cognitive task analysis (CTA) methods – the tools and techniques for uncovering human cognition. She has extensive experience conducting CTA across a broad range of domains including critical care nursing, military air campaign planning, weapons directing, as well as, consumer decision making. Ms. Militello contributed to the development of a set of applied cognitive task analysis methods (ACTA) for use by practitioners and she has conducted more than 20 cognitive task analysis workshops for human factors professionals and students. Her recently published book -- Perspectives on Cognitive Task Analysis: Historical Origins and Modern Communities of Practice, is the standard for instruction on methods and approaches for studying decision making behavior in complex settings. Her applied research includes user interface design for medical informatics and medical devices, as well as military systems. She has studied cross agency collaboration in crisis management and contributed to the design of visualizations to support collaboration between engineering and policy-level decision makers for the US Air Force. Laura received her M.A. in Experimental Psychology and Human Factors from the University of Dayton in 1995.

As a Principal Investigator, Ms. Militello provides technical guidance and direction in all phases of research. In addition to her technical skills in conducting interviews and analyzing qualitative data, she has experience with project management and team leadership. She has successfully managed a broad range of research projects for government, health care and other commercial sponsors, and has worked with multidisciplinary teams including both researchers and practitioners.


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Gary Klein, Ph.D. , is a co-founder and Senior Scientist at Applied Decision Science, LLC (and also at MacroCogniton, LLC). He was instrumental in founding the field of Naturalistic Decision Making, which has grown to hundreds of international researchers and practitioners. 
He developed a Recognition-Primed Decision (RPD) model to describe how people actually make decisions in natural settings. The RPD model has been incorporated into Army doctrine for command and control. He also developed methods of Cognitive Task Analysis for uncovering the tacit knowledge that goes into decision making. More recently, he has been investigating sensemaking, replanning, and anticipatory thinking. He has developed a PreMortem technique for helping organizations with risk management. And he has devised methods for On-the-Job Training to help organizations recycle their expertise and their tacit knowledge to newer workers. He received his Ph.D. in experimental psychology from the University of Pittsburgh in 1969. He has written: Sources of Power: How People Make Decisions (1998, MIT Press); The Power of Intuition (2004, A Currency Book/Doubleday, which is included in The 100 Best Business Books of All Time by Covert and Satterstein, 2009); and Working Minds: A practitioner’s guide to Cognitive Task Analysis (Crandall, Klein and Hoffman, 2006, MIT Press). His most recent book, Streetlights and shadows: Searching for the keys to adaptive decision making (MIT Press) was released in October 2009. 
He was selected as a Fellow of Division 19 of the American Psychological Association in 2006. In 2008 he received the Jack A. Kraft Innovator Award from the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.


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Steve Wolf, MBA. , is a co-founder and Chief Executive at Applied Decision Science, LLC. Prior to forming ADS, Mr. Wolf served as the Chief Information Officer at Bridge Worldwide, a member of the WPP network. Bridge Worldwide is a digital marketing services firm specializing in customer relationship marketing. Mr. Wolf came to his role with ADS backed by more than 10 years of cognitive psychology and market research expertise. He received a portion of his training at Procter and Gamble as a Consumer and Market Knowledge Manager. In this capacity, Mr. Wolf constructed and executed market research, including pioneering the use of the Internet as a research tool for P&G, to understand consumer brand perceptions. 

Prior to joining P&G, Mr. Wolf researched the human factors of decision-making at Klein Associates, working with Dr. Gary Klein and with Ms. Laura Militello. While there, he led the redesign of new human-computer interfaces for the US Army, Air Force, Navy, and the Federal Aviation Administration. Mr. Wolf has published numerous articles in the area of Naturalistic Decision Making on a range of topics including: new models of cognition and information processing, principles for improved user interface design, and new methodologies for capturing and representing expertise. Mr. Wolf holds a Master of Business Administration in Marketing and Electronic Commerce from Vanderbilt University and a Bachelor of Science degree in Cognitive and Human Factors Psychology from Wright State University.